Experience and Innovation
Advanced Thermal Ammonia Stripping
Thermal stripping provides a low cost alternative to the use of carbon addition in a biological process.
The thermal-stripper breaks the ammonium-ion bond with heat alone. This action converts ammonia into a gas, NH3, which can be driven from the liquid-phase with suitable quantities of air.
In a single pass, it is possible to achieve greater than 98.5% removal of ammonia by this mechanism.
Organics has developed a low-NOx combustion process for flaring waste gas which involves Exhaust Gas Recycle. When combined with the thermal destruction of ammonia gases the result is extremely low NOx emission levels. Heat from the thermal-oxidizer used to destroy ammonia is recovered in conventional heat-recovery economizers and used to power the thermal ammonia stripper.
Ammonia Recovery – Acid Scrubbing
An alternative to destroying the stripped ammonia is recovery with the use of an acid scrubber.
The Advanced Thermal Ammonia Stripper with Ammonia Salt recovery has been developed and patented by Organics to provide a fundamental option for disposing of, or benefiting from, ammonia removed from wastewater streams. Typically, nitric, sulfuric or phosphoric acid may be used to create the ammonium ion salt.
In this arrangement, a thermal oxidizer for ammonia-gas destruction is not required. The single important input remains waste-heat with which to drive fracturing of the ammonium ion into ammonia gas.
Such waste-heat can be taken from any suitable source, such as a gas engine’s exhaust, excess process steam or any other heat-source where energy is available for disposal. Once the process is commenced, the exothermic reaction encountered in salt formation offers the potential of significant energy savings.
Ammonia Recovery – Water Scrubbing
The Advanced Thermal Ammonia Stripper with Ammonia Recovery has been developed and patented by Organics to provide another option for disposing of, or benefiting from, ammonia removed from wastewater streams.
The ATASAR process provides the option of either ammonia recovery as an anhydrous liquid under pressure, or as ammonium hydroxide, held in water. The thermal oxidizer is replaced by a cold-water scrubber.
The single important input remains waste-heat with which to drive the chemical reactions. Heat is required for both heating the feed into the ammonia stripper, as well as to drive the absorption chiller serving the cold-water scrubber.
Such waste-heat can be taken from any suitable source, such as a gas engine’s exhaust, excess process steam or any other heat-source where energy is available for disposal.
Biogas Feed Train
Biogas may be produced from many different biodegradable organic substrates. In general, however, its composition will be very similar, being comprised mostly of
- methane, at between 40% and 65% by volume
- carbon dioxide, at between 30% and 40% by volume
- a number of trace gases.
Some trace gases, such as hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes, can be particularly detrimental to gas utilization systems, and may need to be reduced to acceptable concentrations.
In outline terms, the biogas feed train will consist of a gas blower, normally with automatic feed or suction pressure control and equipment to treat the biogas. Treatment may be in the form of reducing trace gas composition, reducing or removing bulk gases, drying the biogas to acceptable levels of moisture content and filtering the biogas to a micron level for particulates.
It is now agreed that renewable energy is one of the major mechanisms that base-load energy requirements of the future will be met. Our collective efforts must be employed to ensure that the circular economy is fully implemented and precious resources are conversed, not only for today, but for all our tomorrows.
Landfill gas as a source of energy has long been used around the world. The technology for filtering the biogas and for using the energy is now well understood and forms an integral part of the portfolio of the Organics Group of companies. Our engineers have experience of the assessment, design, contruction and post-installation operation in many projects around the world.
Waste as an Energy Resource
Organics has been in the waste-as-a-resource business for over thirty years. During this time the company has provided over five hundred projects around the world with equipment to make beneficial use of a wide range of waste types. It has been a logical extension of Organics’ scope to develop Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) equipment and facilities.
RDF production is an essential and integral part of a modern society’s waste management options. By means of a range of transformative processes, waste can be converted into a useful product which can replace high-grade fossil fuels. Subject to form, moisture content and calorific value, RDF can be used in a range of industrial processes from fluidized bed combustion, to cement kilns and in RDF-fired power generation facilities.
SMART Low NOx Flares
Performance NOx – When operating at its peak settings, the Organics SMART flare will achieve emmissions of less than 25 mg/Nm3 (dry gas at 3% Oxygen). At 50% methane this latter is approximately equivalent to a Mass Emission Rate of .025 lb Nox/MMBtu.
Carbon Monoxide – Levels of carbon monoxide will be below 40 mg/Nm3 (dry gas at 3% oxygen), which is approximately equivalent to a Mass Emission Rate of 0.6 lb/MMBtu at 50% methane.
Trace gases – Vinyl chloride, benzene and non-methane organic carbons have all been measured by a NAMAS approved laboratory to be destroyed to greater than 98% efficiency.
Ammonia – When input to a thermal oxidizer equipped with SMART flare technology, an inlet concentration of 3000 mg/Nm3 (dry gas 3% oxygen) resulted in a 99.95% removal efficiency and a total Nox load of <100 mg/Nm3.
This latter is well within the requirements of the US EPA, German TA Luft and the proposed UK Environment Agency Landfill gas emission standards.
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